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2013-10-31 09:11|鿴:6783|:0|:С

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Atlantic Oceanڶԭ8,2217ǧƽϱΪ7,6762ǧƽƽ3627ף8605סӳϱΪϴ󡣱γ60ϱ

 

ƣʮһ(1583)ʿڹ㶫һСɽߵȫͼͼᣬȻӽĽǶȿõͼĶ࣬дķʱһֱ

 

 

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ΪȺָΪΤǡô󶫲뵺ָΪΤۣӵ˹ƥαȺָΪϵ㣩ŷ½ָΪŵǣ뱱ӴΪϿŲ֧ά˹ϿΪŷޡӵкںӡӣԶ20϶˶˹ǵľΪϼһ˵Ϊϱ󣩡̫ƽӣӴΪ׿˺ϿֽΪ϶˺϶ǵľ6716Ϊ磬ӻȺص׿˺Ͽ˵˹ߡ̫ƽ֮˹İ˺ӡγ60Ϊ磬ϱ

 

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ռ20%̫ƽ󡣼ڱԼΪ106,400,000ƽڵĻΪ82,400,000ƽĵ̫ƽӡıӺڴΪ354,700,000ڵĻΪ323,600,000ӺڴƽΪ3,338ףڵĻΪ3,926סΪ8,605ףλɰǵ2,848ﵽǵ4,830ﲻȡ

 

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ˮbathymetry

 

 

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󺣵׵ҪΪһɽмɱγ58 Ϊ1,600һѹɽƶγɡмձˮ2,700ףڼɽγɵ졣ϴһɽ庣Walvis Ridge

 

 

мѴΪۣƽΪ3,7005,500סɴ޼ӵɽмѴΪءȽϴڱвأBlake BasinǺأGuianaأNorth AmericanýǺأCape VerdeأCanariesϴаأAngolaնغأCape͢أArgentinaأBrazil

 

 

ձΪ󺣵ȻɽƽɽҪȻƽء󺣵෢ΪIJPuerto Rico Trenchڼô󶫰Laurentian AbyssϴΪ8,428׵ɣΤ溣South Sandwich TrenchڳΪ7,454׵ʲRomanche Trenchڴ½ԵĴ½ռ󺣵ܵε11%Щڴ½Եcontinental rise䴩

 

 

Ҫ½ԴterrigenousԶpelagicauthigenicɡ½ϵʴáúɽγɳʯˢй½Դʡ½ԴҪڴ½ںӿڼɳĮΪԶкγɣкred clayࣨGlobigerina oozesࣨpteropod oozesࣨsiliceous oozesԶɢڴ󲿷ֺΪ603,300׼䣬ڴ½۴convergent boundaryӿĺzones of upwellingΪ̽ˣmanganese nodulesɣԭǵ̽򱻺ɸѡ˳

 

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ҪζΪߣ3.3-3.7%ܵγȺͼӰ졣ζˮԴˮӰ졣Ȼζڳȸ֣Ϊ併󣩣ձζȵĵطڸγȼ޴λáζȵλüϱγ25 Ϊλȴеͽ꼰ɫ

 

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ıˮܵγȡڡϵͳ̫γȼֲӰ졣ˮ¸ߵͲ-2 C29 CˮڳԱ֣ˮڼءγȵˮ²7 C8 C֮䡣

 

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Ĵˮ飨water massɡϱˮNorth and South Atlantic central watersɴˮϼмˮsub-Antarctic intermediate waterɱˮ1,000סˮNorth Atlantic Deep Waterˮ1,000ˮ4,000סϼײˮAntarctic Bottom Water4,000¡

 

β庣

 

ָһijˮ壬β庣β庣еζȱȽƽر߳ܶࡣβ庣еĺر࣬β庣ŷ⣨European eel⣨American eelIJѳ

 

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ΪĹϵ˳ʱӷתϴʱӷתijϫΪճÿջϫΪڱγ40 ϳϫı䶯

 

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ŷڴ˩ۺճ

 

 

ڽܵˮ¡Ӱ졣ˮıݸߵĹϵ½Ƚºͼټ˱仯Ľذϲ²ˮ´¹ơеˮҪɺγȸı䣬ůɱȣڸγȵܺǡƵĽɫˮůˮϴᱻůӰڽīůůеȺŷޡ¼ô󶫱Ŧdz̲ͨˮּů½ءڱϲγ쫷硣쫷밶500׵ƽ1000

 

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ڸΪġ֤֤һǧǰ̹Ŵ½ܵչѶڴذʱ򣬴ܵ㷺̽ա֪̽ռάˡ˹иײڸײ֮ŷ̽մ٣µó·̲˳Ϊŷ޼ҪΪó(transatlantic trade)Ϊڶѧ̽У֪Ϊսߺſѧ죨Challenger expeditionе¹ſ죨German Meteor Expeditionױѧ-ٵ۲վLamont-Doherty Earth Observatoryˮľ֣hydrographic office

 

ǴڵҪ¼

 

1492꣬˹иײڰ͹ij½

 

1858꣬һ籨Cyrus West Fieldʧˡ

 

1865꣬һɹĿ籨ɴ󶫷ţSS Great Eastern

 

1912415գ̩̹˺ײϱɽû1593ɥ

 

1919꣬NC-4ΪһܷɻɴȻνС󺣣ˮϻмӢ

 

1919ڣɰƿ벼ʣAlcock and BrownʻӢɻɹΪһܷɻͣվɴ󡣣Ŧ

 

1921꣬Ӣ˳ɹʻһܷͧɱ

 

1922꣬˳ɹʻһܷͧϴ

 

192717գһɹĿ绰ͨ

 

1927꣬˹ְ׳ɹɵһ˲ͣվɴĺ̡ŦԼ裩

 

1932꣬÷ǡسΪһλԷԽŮԱ

 

1952꣬ѷAnn DavisonΪһŮԵؼݴкɴ

 

1980꣬Grard d'AbovilleΪһ໮ɴ

 

1994꣬Guy DelageΪһӾɴɷýͰͶ˹

 

1998꣬Benoit LecomteΪһӾɱ󣬶ֻٶȺͣһڡ

 

1999123գTori MurdenΪһŮԻɴɼȺϵգ̻81ռ4767

 

 

ΪڽҵķչòɻȱһݡҪĿ˼ͨ·⣬ڴ½ijзḻʯ̲ḻԴرڴ½ΧҪ㡢㡣ĵŦdz̲ô˹İǵκGeorges Bank͹dz̲Bahama Banksˮ򡢰Ķ̲Dogger Bank븣dz̲Falkland BanksϺдЩؼ˴ľ޴ҵֵΪۣOil spillmarine debrisںȼжԺ󻷾вĹԼܵ鶨ԼٲȾ

 

 

󺣵״󲿷ֵĺ붼ûں3000£ֻɽͻγɵ졣󲿷ֵĵ켯ڼձȺײѱ޵ӡȣ˸ȡһʮֲǡ֡ӡȺ˵дǹŴ˹

 

صġSͺ߻˵¹ѧκɵУʹ󵨵½Ưѧ˵

 

 

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ڴս

 

ŵ׵½

 

ŵս۷1944꣬ǵڶսͬ˹ŷսһģƣǴŰжһݡⳡս194466չĿǰΪֹһκϵ½սʿɹӢϿǰŵء

 

ŵսս˾ҪӢôɣ̲ɺ󣬻ɷҲвⳡսۣеʿҲԱʱݿ˹工ˡϣŲ

 

ŵڵ½ǰһչս˻䡢дģĿкըڻ½սڵʱ666:30ʼڵ½ǰD-DayľҪӢϲغӴé˹

 

յս

 

յս1916531թ61գӢ˫ڵյ뵺򱬷һսǵһսģĺսҲⳡսнս˫ΨһһȫĽս

 

¹ƻԸʴġ롤ϣн5սѲΪսӣմάٺн6սѲ󽢼4ηΪӢսӽ빫塣 ¹ļƻڵ¹뱻룬Ӣͬʱ

 

ϣн뱴ٺнĽϣн2սѲ󽢼һغϡ ϽϣнϺ󣬱ٺн벢ɹɽƺϽָӵӢӣ˫Ϲ250Ҿڱս䡣 Ӣϣһϼսѡս

 

ⳡս۵ĽȽرһ棬Ͻĵ¹ԽٶλĽֻʧ˸ӢֻӶȡսϵʤһ棬ƺϽָӵĻʼҺӳɹؽ¹˵¹ۿڣʹúսڼΪӶȡսϵʤ

 

ؿ̶˳

 

ؿ˶սֳۣƶؿ˶˴ˣǵڶսʱŷ޴½һսԳˡɴ¹е߽ⷨŵߺӢ˾˾ؿ̶˺󣨷ʱĸۿڣΪ˱ⱻ¾Χߣִڵʱģijж˹УӢĻʼҿվ¹վҿսӢԵԶԱִСֻ󲿷ݵIJӳŷ޴½

 

δģijжɹȴΪ󷴹ĸ֮һװŷ޴½ʹӢĵز㡣Ա޷ʱӢбսڲе߿սڣӢվսʲš



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