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̬ϵͳ

2013-10-24 15:17|鿴:8044|:0|:С

ɺһĺ̬ϵͳ

 

ɺһ̬ϵͳ

 

̬ϵͳָһضڣʹһͳơضķӣˮȣ߽֮ãϵؽʺĽӣγһ壬ƴΪ̬ϵͳ̬ϵ

 

Դ

 

̬ϵͳһʣӢѧArthur Roy Claphamָɵ1936Arthur Tansley̬ϵͳָһռɷֺͷɷͨѭáɵһ̬ѧܵλ

 

̬ϵͳзḻԡڼӶ¿-ư͹ҹ԰ڵĸԱǺӡ

 

̬ϵͳзḻڼӶ¿-ưҹ԰ڵĸԱǺӡ

 

С

 

̬ϵͳķΧûй̶ĴСһɭֿһ̬ϵͳһСҲһ̬ϵͳѷʱһôܾһ̬ϵͳ󲿷뿪̬ϵͳı߽һڻͻȻкܴ仯ɵģʺϳɳĮ߽硢ˮ߽硢ɽƽԭĽ磬һ㶼һ̬ϵͳһ̬ϵͳĽ硣Ȼ̬ϵͳı߽粻ǾԵģкܶԽ߽棬ˮвһ̬ϵͳҲϲһ̬ϵͳ

 

 

Ȼ̬ϵͳ

 

ȦȪɺ½ءɭ֡֡ԭʪء

 

˹̬ϵͳ

 

磺ũ԰Ըɴ֤̬ѧԭĸַյ΢桭

 

ƽ

 

һ̬ϵͳڣ֮Լͻ֮Ǵһƽϵģκֻ̬ϵͳƻƽ⣬ƽⱻƻ󣬿ܻ𽥴ﵽһƽϵ̬ϵͳƽⱻصƻܻõʧ⡣

 

Ӱ

 

̬ϵͳʧҪءũҵƻȻ̬ϵͳԼΪ̬ϵͳķ࿪ѻĵأԭ̬ϵͳƻԭе޷棬ֲԼҪׯڣ֮ǺʳĶԼΪⱻݶĺׯ״dzƵӲݣЩγһµ̬ϵͳΪ̬ϵͳ뿪˵Ļ޷ȥ˽ũ׻ģܿͻ²µ̬ϵͳӲݱأҲɳĮԶָԭе̬ϵͳ

 

ʱֵijǨƣҲܻ̬ϵͳûԤϵƻͲӬɢȫ磬ֻȤĴ32ӣ̬ϵͳɻԵѡĿǰϾײݡˮ«Ѿʼй½̬ϵͳвͬʱƷ׶ͺҲʼӦµĻ

 

ɵĻȾҲʺƻ̬ϵͳƽ⣬ǻԵƻ

 

ĿǰѾʶ̬ϵͳƽⱻƻĺͼָƽ⣬ҪʽָƻҪѵĶ࣬оϵĻرһ㾭ʵ岻Զȥ£Ҫ־ԸͶ룬ҲҪۺͽĴٽ

 

̬ϵͳ͸̬ģ⡣



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