½ | ע
̬ ڽ ۺ
ǰλã > > ̬ > ̬ѧ

̬ѧ

2013-10-24 15:09|鿴:6456|:0|:С

src="http://www.tunisr.com/data/attachment/portal/201310/24/145215lmb0442l08ablmdk.jpg"

 

 

̬ѧÖkologieǵ¹ѧҶ˹ء˶1866궨һ̬ѧоΧﻷﻷ໥ϵѧÖkologieOecologieϣʻ㦯ɦʦϦȣңͦϦæϦȣѧƣɵģ˼ǡоסͬһȻе(Lebewesen)ѧơĿǰѾչΪо价֮໥ϵĿѧﻷͷﻷﻷָ֮ڲ֮ĹϵﻷȻʯˮ¶ȡʪȵȡ

 

1935ӢTansley̬ϵͳĸ֮ѧLindemanڶMondota̬ϵͳϸ̬֮תġʮ֮һɡɴˣ̬ѧΪһԼоͷıȽͶѧơ̬ѧѾԼо壬뻷ֱӰС̬ϵͳͬ㼶л뻷ϵۡǵоʵ顪ʶ̡ϵͳۡۡϢ۵ĸͷ룬ٽ̬ѧ۵ķչ뷢չĽض˶̬ѧоȵ㣬оȫ仯о̬ϵͳĻָؽоɳչоȡ

 

̬ѧѧһ֧ѧо΢ۺͺ淢չ΢۷ѧչ̬ѧо۷չķ֧塢ȺȺ䡢̬ϵͳֱȦΪо̬ѧҲһۺԵѧƣҪѧѧѧѧѧѧȸо֪ʶǽȺĻΪһ֮䲻ϵؽѭо

 

̬ѧרעг߶ȵ΢СϸĹ̡

 

̬ѧרעг߶ȵ΢СϸĹ̡̬ѧо֮಻ͬĺ͸ӵĹϵʳڷۡĶ԰ղͬϢر֯½ģУˮ̬ϵͳͳ

 

¹ѧҶ˹ء˶

 

¹ѧҶ˹ء˶ () ֲѧȽŦ˹߶ (), λ̬ѧĽ

 

̬ѧ֧

 

̬ѧҲԼķ֧оΪ

 

̬ѧautoecology - оһһ뻷֮Ĺϵ

 

Ⱥ̬ѧ - оһֻԵϵϽļȺ뻷֮Ĺϵ

 

Ⱥ̬ѧsynecology - оͬһе뻷֮Ĺϵ

 

̬ѧȻѧƵĻְ֮оչѧ֮У

 

Ļ̬ѧ - оĻļȺ;ĻĻ̵Ӱƶá

 

Ȧ

 

Ȧ

 

̬ѧǶӵ11ǧ׵15ǧ׸߶ʯȦˮȦʹȦɵģȦ㴦Ȧ󲿷ڵ100׵100֮䡣

 

ǴˮȦģˮչڴӣڴȦΪߵãγֹΣ߽ʹˮȦ½طչ½ػͬϴΪӦ﷢չ಻ͬࡣ

 

ڲͬȦɫֲ̫ܣתɻѧ棬ȡʳֲֲ̫ܾ󲿷ֱȦˮȦʯȦգ¶ȣɷ硢ϫʯѽ⡣ɽУҲϵӰȦҪԴ̫ڵвϵرġ

 

ԸȦѭûжģԶ̼ʽڵֲ̼գֲͶĺų̶ֲڵˮƺ΢Ԫأһ·ֽصȻȦпܻγʯֲźγúźγʯ͡ϸźγǿȡ

 

̬ϵͳ

 

ȻһΧڣһȺֲ΢ȣ͵صȻһһ̬ϵͳһ̬ϵͳڣʺﵽһ̬ƽ⡣̬ϵͳСһֶСһκˮһСˮȴһôһƬɭ֡һɽһƬɳĮһ̬ϵͳ

 

һ̬ϵͳԼĽṹάѭ̬ϵͳѭϳ̬Ȧѭһ̬ϵͳڸֵʵȶ״̬ر仯̬ϵͳҵڻָȶ״̬Ĺܣػı仯ԭеλģӦµĻ֣̬档仯̫죬ݻӦµĻ̬ƽƻ

 

̬ϵͳ֮䲢ȫģеζڲ̬ͬϵͳ֮䣬ÿ̬ϵͳҲᴴ˹̬ϵͳũĵһ֣е̬ϵͳ˹ģ˹̬ϵͳһ뿪άͻƻָȻ״̬

 

ʳӣ벶

 

ʳӣ벶

 

ʳ

 

һﶼͨȡάģ̬ϵͳеͨȡʳķʽγɵģֽϵһʳʳӢѧҰ٣C.S. Elton1927״ģԼ˵ܵйС㣬СϺסʳͣʳԡԡԡʳԵȣһжʱʳĵͼգ类գȻŨȺܵͣӰݵӳԲݺжʺйԲݣжʻڻۣӥԴӣжʻӥڽһۡʳۻͷŴЧӦͷ֮DZ˲ɱΪDDTڻۣµĵǣ޷һͻƻ̬ϵͳƽ⣬ı仯ʳԻзdzҪӰ졣

 

ʵȻУÿֶﲢֻһʳdzԶֵʳ˻γһӵʳ

 

[༭]һлֺ̬ϵͳܺ͡һ̬ϵͳڣɵijɷԽ;ԽӣʳԽۣ̬ϵͳԶڻָȶ״̬ԽǿɷԽṹԽ򵥣ӦԻ仯Խ͡ҲǺһ򻷾״ָꡣ

 

ŴһлĶԣͬһֵȺ͸лڱ졣

 

ֶԣּĶԡ

 

̬ԣ֯Ρ̬Ķԣչ׵IJͬеķȣ

 

̬ϵͳ

 

̬ϵͳавͬӪߣҪУ

 

ߡȡɫֲǵһߣ

 

ߡȡʳֲ

 

ֽߡֽ⶯ֲʬ΢ԭΪʺˮһͬڶߡ

 

תΪϵͳҪָһߵлͬȻͬɳĮ̬ϵͳͣÿҹֻв0.1-0.3/ƽףȴԴﵽÿҹ10-20/ƽס̬ϵͳάָڣҵҲǿٵ̬ϵͳҵ̬ͣϵͳdzı仯ƻ

 

ȫůӰ죬ʿ˹ɽİڲϺ

 

ȫůӰ죬ʿ˹ɽİڲϺ

 

̬Σ

 

Ȼ£ڻı仯̬ϵͳ档仯죬ҲִΣڲһʱȫɽɵ̬ϵͳ̬Σɵľֲ̬ϵͳƻദ̬ϵͳƻ̬ȦĽṹ͹ңջв౾ͷչ

 

̬ΣDZڲױǷ֣һγٻָҪŬͼʮٱĴ۲ΣӰ졣Ŀйֹڷ籩ˮʧɳĮˮԴݽߡ쳣ɭʧ̬Σ಻ʵĻɵġ̬ΣɵԶҲ޷ָĿǰɵ̬ΣȫůꡢƻѾȫԵ̬Σȫ̬ΣѾв90%ϵ֡

 

̬ΣҪΪݷչƻ̬£಻Ƶķвࡣ



Դڻ
ݷadmin@tunisr.com


¼Ƭ

¼Ƭ

| ϵ | Ȩ | ˽ | |
Ȩ
Copyright © 2011-2020 All Rights Reserved.

ض