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2015-3-4 14:26|鿴:6705|:0|:С

־ӢFree willһΪϿɵĶ塣ѧ־Ķ岢ͳһճġ־ֲͬ˾ѧ֮־IJ棬־ӵеȥǷһ

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ζϵɡǷ಻ͬǷͬѡ

Ϊе¼ȻΪǰijɵĽ

Ϊ־ûлءǿӲͬʱܾۺͲۣܾ־

ǿӲ෴־ۣΪζϵųۡǾһ־ΪǾ㱸־صжijصıȻ¶һ־ΪۻǾеѡǴַ־ijصĽ¶Ϊ־µжǡжߵϵİһжߣңһ־һֶصѧ˼ά;ûϵ־ֱΪ˱ζѧ־ʱΪΨ־ۡ

Ϊھ۵־Ȼڣ߻־Ϊأ뷨ȵͬʱܾۺ۵ѧ˼Ϊº;ۡ

۶ԷǾ

Ϊ״̬IJȫ֮ǰ״̬ǾΪǴģѧľʱá˹Laplace's demon˼ʵ˵˭֪ȥеʵпȻ򣬲ʹЩ֪ʶԤ֪δô΢Сϸڡ˹Ѿٴִⷽѧ˼롣

Ϊ־֮ûлءһţΨеǸжΨһԴأѡʱǸ˵жɡȷģеѡѾעˡ

һм۵㣬Ϊȥƣ˵ѡڶеһ֣䱻ȥӰ쵫ɹȥжڸѡʹ־жȻжΨһΪûܵĶӶֱСӦھ״̬۵ᳫһ˿ѡ뵽ѡѡδԺѡ۵㿴ѡܻῪδѡ

³ˡʷŵɳBaruch Spinoza־ΪһΪԼѡ˷·ʯͷڡѧдľ۵ͲʣʲôŸְŸı䣬ûоֵҲû־ԸһһؾȻһһ޳ǻɵΪ˽Լ־³ء

ɪ屾Arthur SchopenhauerʷŵɳдҶԼȫɵģǸжΪκʱԿʼһʽ...죬ӾϣᾪȵطԼɣڱƷҲоģ޷ıԼΪγɴʼԼǴĽɫ...

԰Լ־£κضʱֻȷ־һ£ҳȫû

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ҿ԰Լ־£ҿԣԸĻҵȫ͸ȻԼ˱Ը! ҲԸΪϵķԸ̫ǿ޷Ըһ棬иͬԸҲʥ˵ij̶ȣҾԸʱҾͲܲԸҾͱȥ...ͬһ̨̨ϵܵǰƶСĿԣһ˻δܵijʹǰʹվĿҲֻôСǶȿվͺһܵһıȻ޿ɱ⡣κ˻ڲȤʹκ¾ͺһľͷһ

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屾˵һ˿Ҫģ־Ҫ־ġ仰Ҷȹеļʹ˳˵ΪʹЩΪҺܷա

‧˹̹Ե¹Ȩݽ1932

‧ϯգFriedrich SchillerΪף³˹̹ɣRudolf Steinerɵѧи̽֡λѧҶŸ־Dzɵģܸ˵Ϊǻڽԭ򣬻ijȫԣȫȻ򶯻ϯ֮ԭҳһƽ⣬˿ɵڲͬ嶯ƶǾͿ޾ķʷƵĵ񣬻ƶԸͼ֮龳˽⡣־һȻ״̬ɴҷ˼Ϳʶеõ

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ͺգBaron d'HolbachһǿӲ

ǿӲߡ籣ͺգd'Holbachžۺų־IJߡ־ߡ˹£Thomas Reid˵á߸Peter van Inwagen޲ءRobert Kaneȣ־ͷ񶨾۵IJߣΪһЩķǾ۴ڡ

ѧž־ݣЩߡ˹Thomas HobbesͨΨеһ˵жǸԼҿԼٶǸ˵ľͬ˵жɵġ˵ҪĵʱӣDavid Humeдϵɳ˱ס⣬ȫÿ˶ӵСָ߳־Աİǿıɱ͵ࡣЩص㲻ڹȥδڹܺ߶ԼΪԸƫãߡǿȡܺߣȻߵ˵־ž۴ҪҪǸ˵ѡǸԵԸƫõĽûбijЩ磨ڣӡҪΪһߣһ˲Ҫκض־ֻҪ񶨾־ͻɡ

һֿΪ־ǣ˹˵ԡΪһ־ġ־һֿԳΪɻɵĶԼˣJohn Lockeġۡ˵һ־Ϊɡ˾Ƿˡ󡱡

־Ǵ;һ˵˯ǷѸ٣ƷǷΰĺ壺֮־ͺͶѸٲ˯ߣβƷһһᳰЦЩĻԣΪȻ˯йأͬβƷйأ뵱һ濼˽һֻжߵܳΪ־һԻ޸࣬־Ҳֻһ

ԼˣۣڶʮһʮĽ

һҲֳصжܷɵĶûصжܷΪԸʹ־Ϊһì޴ǣһЩǰ־ĸȱγɵ⣬ҪԾ֪֮ͻٲݵΡ֣ߵĹ۵߶־÷ܱԡ

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һ㶼ΪҪΪԼΪ𣬲һָ˵ΪӦܵİᡣȻŵθ־벻˹ϵ仰˵ѡˣǷڵϱ븺ΪʲôǻǣͱһҪ⡣

߱ȽϻΪۺ͵α˴˼룬Ͼһ˲ΪһһʼԤ֪Ϊ˭ǿӲɵľ֧ȴ˵

෴ǵεһȾ᲻ܹΪһ˱븺𣬳Ϊijģ˵ֻеһΪܵijԭʱDzҪһΪ鸺֤Դʮѧӵ˼룬ҲڸͺҶáͷǾΪ棬ôЩδ¼ġ ôͲһ⣬һΪij̼ɵͻϵͳµijΪǷ񻹿ԻǷӦö˸϶أȴһ˱ʼ븶ϵ֮ǰʾΪжٱdz˵ϲã˵˵ġԸ񡱡Щ߶Դ˻ӦǾжȫȻطΪЩڣ־ѡ񲢷Ⱦġ۵Թ㷺ѧ˵ƣΪֻ˻ظûн״̬غζѧзdzֹĸûʲôС

ʥޣġ顷жԵʣ"ҤѵûȨһһɹص һɱ?"Romans 9:21˹۵㣬ʹӸ˵˵ΪϵģԻΪָܵ

һƵĹ۵Ϊ˵ĵԴԸ˵Ը.˵һɱ˷Ը޿ɱĻɱˣԻᱻͷΪͷŻԸ޿ɺ.

εĹҲٶ˸ʵԣ˵һˣ;ı仯֮⣬ͬһġˣ52Stanley Williams28Stanley Williams

ۺcould-have-done-otherwiseԭ

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ԲصIJ׿ܱΪ־Ļҡǿ֢оԼȥΥ־飬һϴʮٴΣΪԼƺȴڱʵغĸ־֢ۡTourette֢״Ļߣ᲻˵˶ǾΡ鴤ӰDr. Strangeloveӳ֮ҲΪ氮ʿ֢֢仼߻һЩĶȴûЩͼҹʱֵ˯УͻȻ˫סԼIJӡ

ּ񾭿ѧ˹̹ĵĺ˹HaynesɽɽѧıأBenjamin LibetԼɼݴѧɫάҽѧĵѧҺҽˡ׵£Itzhak FriedˣͨԲɨ۲֣ⷢڲ߲ѡʶ֮ǰԾ˻Ҳ˵ǽ˵ʶ֮ǰѾˡʶھ֮Ųġ

ѹѧأBenjamin Libetһʲôʱ밴Ϳɰ°ťԵͼз֣Щʶǰİӣ˶ƤʾѾ˷оƤ˷ܣ֪ʶ֮ʱ䣬7~10ӡµо֣һȺ256ԪĻԣÿѧԼҪʲôѡ֮ǰܵóԤ⣬׼ȷȴ80%ʶԼʲô֮ǰijЩλпѾ˾

񾭿ѧҲ˹Marcel Brassڸ£Patrick Haggard2007귢ڡ񾭿ѧڿһо֧˵Ƶֻ߿һ̰°ťǰľǷ֣п󱳲жҶر˽Ϊʱ˷ʾԸΪУһ鸺ƻΪĹ졣Ǿɾܾ־

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ѧʥԤ֪ͨ־ĸִϾȷ֪ʲôҪܹ֪һ˻ѡôѡΪɵıֻ˲ɣҲ˵֪֪һѡôƺŤһ˵ɡʵϺ˹µĺսйأ콫򽫲ᷢսһսôҲļΪ棬ôԹȥԣⳡսƱػᷢᷢսô֪ͬڹȥĶԣⳡս۱ȻᷢζţδΪΣδɹȥ֮ϡǹȥδļ衣ȻѧΪȻԺͿԶǶһʱ֪ĻʵĻ׼㣬ʲôһ۲ߵĹ۵˵ֻǿܣôһȫ֪߶ԣDZȻġЩѧţ־͵ӵˣһЩû۵㣬û־ģ۵ȾȴǣDZ֤ûꡣ̫ѧǿ־걾ʵIJϣʾָnshm נשמֻ㡰neshamaꡣ

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ڻڽ̵ѧ۵У˲νġ͡ˡ˵ĽֲûСע־Ϊϵ۽Լkˣ־Խѡšɡܡܾ־Ҳʥᵽܹʹ˷ߵõ֡

ʥ47-11мصġʥԸ28мصġҲš˵ͽþȡĹҪ־ѡŲҮľ꣬ſԵõϵ۵ˡΪڻˣѹµˡʥֶ517ڣ־ѡŲҽҮջľ޷ҪԼеȥΪĺ

ҮջľȶϵʥһᵽġĩյСԼ317ڡΪDzĶӽҪ˵(ˡͬ)ҪþȡԼ318ڡˣŵˣѾˣΪӵҮջȶһڸĵܾܵջ

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ӶΪԤۺ־ìܣDzв㣵ġ

־˵ǼΪҪġʥ¹˹ʥ˹Ҫᳫߣ̶־͸жǿɺ½̵˼άһգڷڽ̸ĸ֮ߵķ⡣οḭ̃ٿȫⲿӣ

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Ľ֪˹Ϊȫ֪ȫܵģk֪һСͳ־ԾҪʹ֪Ϊи𡣾֮Ҳἰû˸ñ˵ص

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̲ǿ־Ե˵ĴڶԵͺϵģʵϲһ־ԵɣһҪңֻͬԵۺϣԲǺ㳣ġ۹˵ȻɲǾԣ־ҲǺ㳣䣬־Է˵һҪӦɮж˼ϵɣⲢһҪ־ָ۾ǷͽĽǷνԵҵ۵һ֡ڶǧǰ̾Сʶ֮˵ۡǡࡢ֡ʶ⣬ִ֡ҡִȡʶΪСҡִȡԻޱ޾ķաڰʶҮʶֳơʶ书ܾѶϢԴ桢תʶûСʶ㲻֪ƻ仰˵ν־ֻǸ󣬡ʶڱ֧ǵʶǣǵϲŭ֡ʶУҵۻͬһӣû۶ɵĻѶϢЩѶϢ룬ijɳ



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