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2015-1-29 12:18|鿴:12853|:0|:С

ڽ̸ĸӢProtestant Reformation1617͵ĽɷѣԼ˹·¡ԼӶԼ½ͽ1517꣬··ġʮ۸١ڽĸĿʼĸ߷ԵʱĽʽ쵼̻֯ṹǵŬ£µĹԵĸĸɽ̻ᱻڵһЩŷ¼Ӻ̻ʴǶ̻̻ϵڽ̸ĸĹؼһЩأո˼ĴӡˢĴ۹Ҳٳ½̵Ĵ

һ½̻̽15˹ĵֺһᣨUnitas Fratrumǵֻᣩ½̻̽·»ᣨҪڵ¹޵ĺҺ˹άǣͼӶĵĸߣҪڵ¹ʿոӪ⣬һЩСĸĸڡ

л鷢˷ڽ̸ĸĻӦר֯ҮΪڽ̸ĸ˶ȷ档һԣŷתΪ½̣ŷԾ̣ŷΪ˫ҳͻijΪȫս

Ȼ·¾ѾһЩϴĸĸ˶Ϊڽ̸ĸ↑ʼ1517··ʮ۸١1648ǩ˹طԼŷڽս

ĸ̵ȷ

򵥵˵̻ʷҪĸĸﶼǽĸĸƶȵĸĸϽ˵ƶȸĸҲǵڽĸĻϽеġԳ֮ʱĸĸҾǻʿ˹Justin Martyrc.100-165Tertullianɽĸ⣨Clement of AlexandriaǶIgantiusc.35-107üףPolycapc.70-156ȡ

ҶΪҪ֤ʱȨǰʵеļסαIsidorian Decretalsʱ֪Ⱥ𷴶ƭ֣ձѹơʮзնɷ˵ǿƽͽ̨ʿ۲ȫȣ൱ƴ⵽ΪˣԳְȻ˹ɽΪʮǰĸ̻˶

1376ӢյýӢʼѧԼۼʱνڸиʮһң̻ƶţ򹫿ָ̻ߡڲӦ档ӢҰӵΪⱻ׽죬ƶĸ1377ʥΨһݣ̻Ψһɷʥɰ׻Ӣģ1384ɣ1388޶·šƽȨ̻ӦƽͽΪģǽڣһʥ񣬷лߡҪһ⴫ְӢʱɹð졣׷߱ΪɣLollardsӢݻٴȢϣǹٴ벨ϣǡ

Լ˹DzϣDzѧĶܸжҲʼƵۣܲϣdzҰͣϴָȯΥʥĿϰΪ1409鱻ڶ1414기ʿ̹󱻾ձԻ̣ϣǷڵĺ˹սһֱʮͲŽ

ڽ̸ĸı

ڽ̸ĸﱾһ˼ĴҲᡢΡµĴͻ뵱ʱ౳йϵ

ԭʥķ

1453˹۹ռͥ۹ŷѧǴ˴Ĺŵ䣬аԭĵʥ˹УˡԼʥϣԭİ档·оϣԭģʶʥ潲ǡķġų塱ǺܴĴ

ӡˢij

ӡˢķ/Ϣƶڽ̸ĸѸͷչڽ̸ĸǰʥֻʥְԱĶһͽ޷ĶʥֻȫŸԾĽ͡Ȼ1456ڱȵӡˢӡˢһʥܹ֮ԼĶʥԼ˼Խ̻͵ɡ·µڽ̸ĸߵͨӡˢѸٴݵأڽ̸ĸ˼Ѹٴ

15ͳ˼룬ӽ˼оڽ̸ĸͬʱڵո˶кܴӰ졣ʱ岢ûл˼ȷʵ˶Խ̻ᴫͳԽ̻Ȩɡ巢չɣҪʱڲŽԶߡ

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й͵Ҫڽ̣ڵĽ̻dzӡŹ̵ķչ̻ҲӵӴĽ̲ĸԣʹְԱĵи̻еijŲϵķĸ߼ְԱְλԽǮǵ»ġʱ̻Ϊ磽ĸӪƵijȻȯ̡֮֮һЩ߼ְԱԳУнɽ˽15011030ֵԳеĴ¼ȻΪոʱڵľչԼʥɶȽʿŬδ̻̫IJ֮ĵ𽥶Դ̻߲ر1418̻ѽ֮󣬸ơЩڽ̸ĸ˶߶Խ̻Ȩɣܴìڽ̸ĸĵݱ˶װͻ

ڽϵ

͵ڽϵ̻ʺͽ̻Σ̻Ϊʥ۹Ļʵۼˣɴμᣬƶʮ־̻ھҲҲȻҲڽ̵ǽ̻ᡢ޵Ժ֧ʮ־ϵĺݻΪΣµ⡣ڽ̸ĸУȨ׷ױʹΡµ֧Լʥ۹Ļʵ۲֧گͨ·£־ѡ·ᶨ֧ߣ·̺߳һ½̺ԼӢ̻Ӣ̻ᣬȴûнϵڽ̸ĸ

ҵ˵Ӱ

й͵ŷ޴·Ϊʿ廹ʿϵȽ׼ũūԼƽɵµȽ׼Źҵĸ˴һµĽ׼в׼ƽɵв׼չƵҵ֯лев׼ĻҲ֮ƶԼ׼ȵȡҪ˰̻ĸʥʽȵҲҪѡЩììܻһ˶ս

ڽ̸ĸĹҪ

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ʮ۸

ʮ۸

·ڶѧErfurtѧ˶ʿѧ귨ɡ޵Ժޣ1507Ϊ񸸡1512DZѧѧԺʿ漴ڡʥʫƪ1513~1515飨1515~1516̫飨1516~1517ϣ飨1517~1518ǵ¹õĶԼԭڿεĽ֮һȻȻ̻ɷDZĿޣʹǿҵIJڡ·Ĺ۵㡣ζܵõĵƽֱһжʥʱ˱ŵ117ʱͻȻѵԭ˵ĵþֻΪϵԼϵ۵Ķͣһеɷܱ֤ʹ˵ԡ塱ҲڻͬУһЩڵ֧֣ۿƭȯΣֶŽ̻ʥְij£ʼ̻ȯ15171031ȯġʮ۸١DZѧſڡڵǡҪʥǰϦʹúܶ˿ݡȻӡˢʹòãܺ󴫱ȫ¹ܺĴȫŷ152113սʮ̼ԭֻҪĸ̻һƶȣӴҲٳϽڵȨ˺ĽܳΪ̡½̡֮ԵĶ̻̣ɹɽֱ̡ӽĽ̻Ϊ·»ᡱڡĸĽ̻ԱʥûĽֹĽ̻ᴫͳ

˹ʿº˹ǣWildhausڰάҲܽάҲɾͶѧʱάҲɴѧдѧĸʱ߲ɶ˹˵쵼£ʹѧߵĸĸڰѧڣӰ죬ǿʿְ1519Ϊ̻ʦǺģԽϣġϣĻķĵԣʥĸ﷽Ϊٷߡ1525ֹɴʥͰ汾Ľ̵ǽ̻ڵµʼȯмƻԵĹʥԼţʥһʽԣʥ֮С·кܴIJͬʥ͵·ñ˴ͬʹ1529Colloquy of MarburgĻڷֵǸٶȷһΡڴ˹ӵӰ죬еڽ̸ĸʿϵһһɵģӰijУԴΪӴ˳пʼɹĸォݱչͬʱڴϲɽϿݵ̬ȣʹ׷Ӧڴϴ̵֮ĹϽ1531ʱ̴һս֮ĸ˶תʿһߡȻѧ˵ڶʿµԾ൱Ӱ

Ӷģģ

 

ԼӶ

ԼӶ

ԼӶڰŵڰѧоѧֵ꣬ѧϰɡ1536꣬桶Ҫ"Institute of Christian Religion"һ飬漴ߡĸĸ̻᰸δɣұDZо1541ٷߣõӭؽ̻ʮ꣬ʹΪ½̵ġӶԤۣ˵þȫԤģֲͬ෴ģΪϵĵÿһҪþȵͽӦŬˡӶĵĽܵ๤ҵ߻ӭΪ½ԳϻķչΪ

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Ӣ·º͸̻ᣬΪҪɪգCatherine飬ܾڣ1534̺ͬͨ𷨰Act of SupremacyӢ̻ᣬֳʥᣬɽ̵Ľʽ޶£ֻӢڳΪȨֱӰ»λĬع»Ħ£ʥῪʼʽĸǣСʮž͡»顷

ڽ̸ĸ֮ǰ̻᲻ͨڵ˼룬߸Ȩ֮ϡڽ̸ĸ̻תת棬಻ͬ½̽ɣͲͬĹϣʹѸٷչ׳磬ӢʥĽʹӢҺ;רƵõǿΪӢʲ׼춨ŷ޵ĸҲΪԵڽǿڵʶ͹ҵľ

Ȼڽ̸ĸɽиĸijֻǷ̻ᣬⳡĸиŷ޴ɡݵϢԲͬİݵԲͬİݣⳡڽ̸ĸٽŷΡõȷĽ

ڽ̸ĸನ

̵ĸ¡ڽ̸ĸ

ڽԾڽȺ - 1555꣬½̡ɽɵĹǩ¸˹ԼЭɸͳȫȨùĽɣֻܽǨ1598귨䲼׼½̡½ȴɻݣDZŸ˿ֱϵ۹ͨ롶ʥͬļ⡣֡ΪǡĽݱڽȺԭ̾С˲½̶ȺԼˡ

ڽս C ŷ޸ڽ̸ĸ˶Ѫս£1610ɱٶս½ͽ1618¹·¸˹Լ٣˹쵼ͽսʮꡣֱ1648ǩ˹طǺԼ˫ػƽദ1568ļӶͽ򷴾ɽͳѹ˱ʡİʮսֱ1648ǩ˹غԼջɡ

ڽ̸ĸӢ̣ŲɫʣӢܼӶӰĻͽΪͽˣټԸĸʹɸϺʥȴָܵɽ̵ĹһȺ´½1640-1649սʷơͽĸͽʤ½൱ɵķչֱ1685¹ղķʿָɽ̼רΡپ1688ûѪġٸʹӢΪŷ޵һɵĹҡڽսУӾúȵִʮڵʮڵİţŷ˿٣˥ˣ𽥵Ͼս˵Ľѵſʼȡڽ̿ߡ



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